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War (WWI) is declared on Germany (by Britain, implicating CA automatically). The War Measures Act is passed suspending civil rights during crises. Immigration to CA is at an all-time high. The Parliament of Women is staged
Women are granted the right to vote & hold public office, thanks to Nellie Mclung (or here, or yet more links) & others. The Parliament buildings are destroyed in a fire. 25,000 Canadians & Newfoundlanders are killed in the Battle of the Somme. (Here for other links, maps, etc. for 3 major battles of WWI.)
A temporary income tax is introduced to help cover wartime
British dominions are defined as autonomous
Labrador is awarded to Newfoundland (and here) rather than Quebec by Britains Privy Council. The celebration of Confederation is marked by the first cross-country radio broadcast. The Old Age Pension Act is introduced (here for an interesting history of Social Work in Canada
The Great Depression begins
The Bank of Canada is formed. The Dionne quintuplets are born
Roosevelt (and here for biography or time line links) becomes the first president in office to visit CA. [A link that was formerly listed on this site has been changed; it was found to contain inaccurate information. My aplogies to anyone who was offended by that inadvertent error.]
Unemployment insurance becomes available (here for an interesting history of Social Work in Canada). Thérèse Casgrain helps women win the right to vote & hold office in the provincial legislature (Quebec)
Hong Kong falls to Japan; Canadians are captured
The Korean War begins; Canadians are part of a United Nations force
Population is 14,009,429. Immigration after the war is more than 100,000 per year (also here). A report finds that CAs culture is dominated by American influences. The Indian Act is revised to limit coverage of Native people, excluding Native women who married non-Native men (rescinded in 1985)
In Springhill, N.S. a coal mine disaster results in the deaths of 74 miners
CCF becomes the New Democratic Party (NDP)
A new flag is adopted by CA
CA celebrates its centennial, & hosts Expo 67 Montreal (Expo site in French). The army, Royal CDN Navy & Royal CDN Air Force are joined to become the Canadian Armed Forces. Charles de Gaulle, president of France, utters the phrase Vive le Québec libre in Montreal. Multicultural immigration from developing nations becomes an immigration policy objective, now operating on a point system
English & French become official languages of the federal government
The FLQ kidnap James Cross & Pierre Laporte in October (for a chronology of the October Crisis and its aftermath, from Feb. 1970 to 1982);Laporte is murdered. The Trudeau government applies the War Measures Act limiting civil rights
CA beats Russia in hockey
CA sends troops & observers to the Middle East
The Supreme Court declares unilingual legislatures & courts unconstitutional (Quebec & Manitoba)
Provincial premiers agree to the Meech Lake Accord (though it does not pass in 1990). Pay Equity legislation is passed in Ontario. The Reform party with its popularity base centred in Western Canada, is founded
The French-only sign law is reinstated after being struck down by the Supreme Court, through the notwithstanding (an opinion column which discusses the clause) clause in the Charter of Rights & Freedoms
Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) takes effect. GST (goods & services tax) is introduced for 1991
Lucien Bouchard & other Quebec MPs form the Bloc Québecois. Manitoba refuses to ratify the Meech Lake Accord (here for a book on Meech Lake) since it provides no special status for Native people. Mohawks & government forces engage in armed confrontation near Oka, Quebec (map here; update on situation here; from gov. perspective here: book here)
Cod fishery is shut down in Atlantic region. NAFTA is signed. Constitutional reform (the or here Charlottetown Accord) including reform of the Senate, self government for aboriginal nations, enlarged House of Commonsthough having Quebec's approvalis voted down in a national referendum
Quebec Cree win compensation from Hydro Quebec for damage to their lands. NAFTA legislation passes in House of Commons (NAFTA defended in 1997 by Mulroney). Brian Mulroney resigns as Prime Minister. Kim Campbell becomes first female Prime Minister, but her party (Conservative) is defeated & nearly eradicated in an election.
Quebec holds a referendum on sovereignty, & the No side barely wins a majority. Native people (Cree, Innu) review their stand on Quebec sovereignty. Study of Somalia Affair causes disbanding of Airborne Regiment. Representatives of aboriginal people gather in Dec. and issue the Sacred Assembly Proclamation; from this was developed the Reconciliation Proclamation and the Statement of Principles and Priorities.
Flooding in Saguenay/Lac-St-Jean and in some Northern Ontario towns. General Jean Boyle resigns over Somalia Inquiry controversy (Inquiry was cut short in 1997; some background info.); report here; additional links here (CBC Newsworld)
Federal election sends five parties to Parliament. The provincial premiers, except Lucien Bouchard of Quebec, draw up a proposal for constitutional reform known as the Calgary Declaration. Flooding in Manitoba (some more photos). Report on military's role in the 21st Century. A second Sacred Assembly (see 1995 entry) is held but does not issue a proclamation. An out of court settlement between the Federal Government and Brian Mulroney is reached in the Airbus affair. Confederation Bridge between the mainland and PEI opens (critique here)
Electrical failures due to ice storm (New YorkI know it's not Canada, but for American readers this may be of interesthere, Montreal area here) leave millions of people without power in mid-winter in Quebec & Ontario (here's news, here's satellite image). Blood is being collected by the Canadian Blood Services since the Canadian Red Cross had to withdraw from its role in the blood system in 1997 after it comes to light that people had become infected by tainted blood since the mid-1980's. Allegations of the abuse of women in the Canadian military become public
NWT is divided into Nunavut, the east part, & a western territory, still to be named. (This is a site in Inuktitut with pictures and a font for viewing.)The Royal Ontario Museum's largest collection of human remains of over 500 Wendat (Huron) people, whom archaeologists unearthed in the 1940's, are returned to the Ossossane burial ground near Midland, Ontario; members of the Wendat Nation came from all over NA to witness the burial of their ancestors.
Updated September 2000
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For visual representations of the changing map of Canada during this time period, see Canadian Geographic's Mapping Canada site.
HBCHudsonss Bay Company;
NAFTANorth American Free Trade Agreement.
Standard provincal & other abbreviations used wherever possible.
Icons are used primarily to illustrate the main tenor of the entry for a given date and to help follow events at a glance.
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